Navigate Up

Orthopaedics Center - A-Z Index

#
I
Q
Y
Z

Print This Page

Pancreatic islet cell tumor

A pancreatic islet cell tumor is a rare tumor of the pancreas that starts from a type of cell called the islet cell.

Alternative Names

Islet cell tumors; Islet of Langerhans tumor; Neuroendocrine tumors

Causes

In the healthy pancreas, cells called islet cells produce hormones that regulate a several bodily functions. These include blood sugar level and the production of stomach acid.

Tumors that arise from islet cells of the pancreas can also produce a variety of hormones, which can lead to specific symptoms.

Pancreatic islet cell tumors can be noncancerous (benign ) or cancerous (malignant).

Islet cell tumors include:

A family history of multiple endocrine neoplasia, type I (MEN I ) is a risk factor for the development of islet cell tumors.

Symptoms

Symptoms depend on which hormone is made by the tumor.

For example, insulinomas produce insulin, which lowers blood sugar levels. Symptoms may include:

  • Feeling tired or weak
  • Shaking or sweating
  • Headache
  • Hunger
  • Nervousness, anxiety, or feeling irritable
  • Unclear thinking or feeling uneasy
  • Double or blurry vision
  • Fast or pounding heartbeat

If your blood sugar gets too low, you may faint, have a seizure, or even go into a coma.

Gastrinomas make the hormone gastrin, which tells the body to make stomach acid. Symptoms may include:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Ulcers in the stomach and small bowel
  • Vomiting blood (occasionally)

Glucagonomas make the hormone glucagon, which helps the body raise blood sugar levels. Symptoms can include:

  • Diabetes
  • Red, blistery rash in the groin or buttocks
  • Weight loss
  • Frequent urination and thirst

Exams and Tests

Blood tests may vary depending upon the symptoms, but may include:

Imaging tests may be done:

A blood sample may also be taken from a vein in the pancreas for testing.

Sometimes, surgery is needed to diagnose and treat this condition. During this procedure, the surgeon examines the pancreas by hand and with ultrasound.

Treatment

Treatment depends on the type of tumor and if it is cancerous.

Cancerous tumors can grow quickly and spread to other organs. They may not be treatable. Tumors are usually removed with surgery, if possible.

If cancer cells spread to the liver, a part of the liver may also be removed, if possible. If the cancer is widespread, chemotherapy may be used to try and shrink the tumors.

If the abnormal production of hormones is causing symptoms, you may receive medications to counteract their effects. For example, with gastrinomas, the overproduction of gastrin leads to too much acid in the stomach. Medications that block stomach acid release can reduce symptoms.

Outlook (Prognosis)

You may be cured if the tumors are surgically removed before they have spread to other organs. If tumors are cancerous, chemotherapy may be used, but it usually cannot cure patients.

Life-threatening problems (such as very low blood sugar) can occur due to excess hormone production, or if the cancer spreads throughout the body.

Possible Complications

  • Diabetes
  • Hormone crises (if the tumor releases certain types of hormones)
  • Severe low blood sugar (from insulinomas)
  • Severe ulcers in the stomach and small intestine (from gastrinomas)
  • Spread of the tumor to the liver

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your health care provider if you develop symptoms of these tumors, especially if you have a family history of MEN I.

Prevention

There is no known prevention for these tumors.

References

Mauro LA, Herman JM, Jaffee EM, Laheru DA. Carcinoma of the pancreas. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, et al., eds. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2013:chap 81.

National Cancer Institute: PDQ Pancreatic Cancer Treatment. Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute. Date last modified: Feb. 21, 2014. Available at: http://cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/pancreatic/HealthProfessional. Accessed: March 23, 2014.

National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines): Pancreatic cancer. Version 1.2014. Available at: http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/pancreatic.pdf. Accessed: March 23, 2014.

Updated: 3/23/2014

Yi-Bin Chen, MD, Leukemia/Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.


¬©  UPMC | Affiliated with the University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences
Supplemental content provided by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions. All rights reserved.

For help in finding a doctor or health service that suits your needs, call the UPMC Referral Service at 412-647-UPMC (8762) or 1-800-533-UPMC (8762). Select option 1.

UPMC is an equal opportunity employer. UPMC policy prohibits discrimination or harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, ancestry, national origin, age, sex, genetics, sexual orientation, marital status, familial status, disability, veteran status, or any other legally protected group status. Further, UPMC will continue to support and promote equal employment opportunity, human dignity, and racial, ethnic, and cultural diversity. This policy applies to admissions, employment, and access to and treatment in UPMC programs and activities. This commitment is made by UPMC in accordance with federal, state, and/or local laws and regulations.

Medical information made available on UPMC.com is not intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. You should not rely entirely on this information for your health care needs. Ask your own doctor or health care provider any specific medical questions that you have. Further, UPMC.com is not a tool to be used in the case of an emergency. If an emergency arises, you should seek appropriate emergency medical services.

For UPMC Mercy Patients: As a Catholic hospital, UPMC Mercy abides by the Ethical and Religious Directives for Catholic Health Care Services, as determined by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. As such, UPMC Mercy neither endorses nor provides medical practices and/or procedures that contradict the moral teachings of the Roman Catholic Church.

© UPMC
Pittsburgh, PA, USA UPMC.com