Navigate Up

Heart Center - A-Z Index

#
J
Q
X
Z

Print This Page

Factor II deficiency

Factor II deficiency is a blood clotting (coagulation) problem that occurs when there is a lack of a substance called prothrombin.

Alternative Names

Hypoprothrombinemia; Prothrombin deficiency

Causes

When you bleed, series of reactions take place in the body that help healthy blood clots form. This is called the coagulation cascade. The process involves special proteins called coagulation or clotting factors. You may have a higher chance of excess bleeding when one or more of these clotting factors are missing.

This disorder occurs when the body does not have enough an important blood clotting protein called factor II. The condition runs in families (inherited) and is very rare. Both parents must have the gene to pass the disorder to their children. A family history of a bleeding disorder can be a risk factor.

Blood clotting
Blood clotting

Most commonly, factor II deficiency is caused by:

  • Lack of vitamin K due to long-term use of antibiotics, bile duct obstruction , or poor absorption of vitamin K from the intestines. Some babies are born with vitamin K deficiency.
  • Use of drugs that prevent clotting (anticoagulants such as warfarin or Coumadin)

Symptoms

  • Abnormal bleeding after childbirth
  • Abnormal menstrual bleeding
  • Bleeding after surgery
  • Bleeding after trauma
  • Bruising
  • Nosebleeds
  • Umbilical cord bleeding at birth

Exams and Tests

Treatment

You can control blood loss by getting infusions of fresh or frozen plasma or concentrates of clotting factors into the blood. If a lack of vitamin K is causing the problem, you can take vitamin K by mouth, through injections under the skin, or through a vein (intravenously).

Knowing that you have a bleeding disorder helps the doctor can take extra care if you need surgery. It also lets you alert also tell other family members who may have the same problem.

Support Groups

You can ease the stress of illness by joining a support group [link 091-2204] where members share common experiences and problems.

Outlook (Prognosis)

The outcome can be good with proper treatment.

This is a life-long bleeding disorder if you inherit it the condition.

If it is caused by liver disease, the outcome depends on how well your liver problem can be treated.

Possible Complications

Severe bleeding, even into the brain, can occur.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Get emergency treatment right away if you have unexplained or long-term blood loss, or if you can't control the bleeding.

Prevention

Genetic counseling may be helpful for disorders that start at birth (congenital). When a lack of vitamin K is the cause, using vitamin K can help.

References

Ragni MV. Hemorrhagic Disorders: Coagulation Factor Deficiencies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 177.

Gailani D, Neff AT. Rare coagulation factor deficiencies. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, Heslop HE, Weitz JI, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2012:chap 139.

Updated: 3/3/2013

Yi-Bin Chen, MD, Leukemia/Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.


©  UPMC | Affiliated with the University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences
Supplemental content provided by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions. All rights reserved.

For help in finding a doctor or health service that suits your needs, call the UPMC Referral Service at 412-647-UPMC (8762) or 1-800-533-UPMC (8762). Select option 1.

UPMC is an equal opportunity employer. UPMC policy prohibits discrimination or harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, ancestry, national origin, age, sex, genetics, sexual orientation, marital status, familial status, disability, veteran status, or any other legally protected group status. Further, UPMC will continue to support and promote equal employment opportunity, human dignity, and racial, ethnic, and cultural diversity. This policy applies to admissions, employment, and access to and treatment in UPMC programs and activities. This commitment is made by UPMC in accordance with federal, state, and/or local laws and regulations.

Medical information made available on UPMC.com is not intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. You should not rely entirely on this information for your health care needs. Ask your own doctor or health care provider any specific medical questions that you have. Further, UPMC.com is not a tool to be used in the case of an emergency. If an emergency arises, you should seek appropriate emergency medical services.

For UPMC Mercy Patients: As a Catholic hospital, UPMC Mercy abides by the Ethical and Religious Directives for Catholic Health Care Services, as determined by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. As such, UPMC Mercy neither endorses nor provides medical practices and/or procedures that contradict the moral teachings of the Roman Catholic Church.

© UPMC
Pittsburgh, PA, USA UPMC.com