Navigate Up

Men's Center - A-Z Index

#
Q
Y
Z

Print This Page

Factor II deficiency

Factor II deficiency is a blood clotting (coagulation) problem that occurs when there is a lack of a substance (prothrombin) that is needed for blood to clot.

Alternative Names

Hypoprothrombinemia; Prothrombin deficiency

Causes, incidence, and risk factors

When you bleed, the body launches a series of reactions that help the blood clot. This is called the coagulation cascade. The process involves special proteins called coagulation or clotting factors. When one or more of these clotting factors are missing, there is usually a higher chance of bleeding.

Blood clotting
Blood clotting

This disorder occurs when the body does not have enough factor II, an important blood clotting protein. Factor II deficiency that runs in families (inherited) is very rare. Both parents must be carriers to pass it to their children. A family history of a bleeding disorder is a potential risk factor.

Most commonly, factor II deficiency is caused by:

  • Lack of vitamin K due to long-term use of antibiotics, bile duct obstruction , or poor absorption of vitamin K from the intestines. Some babies are born with vitamin K deficiency.
  • Use of drugs that prevent clotting (anticoagulants such as warfarin or Coumadin)

Symptoms

  • Abnormal bleeding after delivery
  • Abnormal menstrual bleeding
  • Bleeding after surgery
  • Bleeding after trauma
  • Bruising
  • Nosebleeds (epistaxis)
  • Umbilical cord bleeding at birth

Signs and tests

Treatment

You can control blood loss by getting infusions of fresh or frozen plasma or concentrates of clotting factors into the blood. If a lack of vitamin K is causing the disorder, you can take vitamin K by mouth, through injections under the skin, or through a vein (intravenously).

Diagnosing a bleeding disorder is important so that the doctor can take extra care if you need surgery, and can test or warn other family members who might be affected.

Support Groups

You can ease the stress of illness by joining a support group where members share common experiences and problems. See hemophilia - resources .

Expectations (prognosis)

The outcome can be good with proper treatment.

This is a life-long bleeding disorder if you get it from your parents.

If it is caused by liver disease , the outcome depends on how well your liver problem can be treated. Taking vitamin K will treat vitamin K deficiency.

Complications

Severe bleeding, even into the brain, can occur.

Calling your health care provider

Go to the emergency room or call the local emergency number (such as 911) if you have unexplained or long-term blood loss or if you can't control the bleeding.

Prevention

Genetic counseling may be helpful for disorders that start at birth (congenital). When a lack of vitamin K is the cause, using vitamin K can help.

References

Gailani D, Neff AT. Rare coagulation factor deficiencies. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr., Shattil SJ, et al, eds. Hoffman Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier;2008:chap 127.

Kessler C. Hemorrhagic disorders: Coagulation factor deficiencies. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier;2007:chap 180.

Updated: 2/28/2011

David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine; and Yi-Bin Chen, MD, Leukemia/Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.


©  UPMC | Affiliated with the University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences
Supplemental content provided by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions. All rights reserved.

For help in finding a doctor or health service that suits your needs, call the UPMC Referral Service at 412-647-UPMC (8762) or 1-800-533-UPMC (8762). Select option 1.

UPMC is an equal opportunity employer. UPMC policy prohibits discrimination or harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, ancestry, national origin, age, sex, genetics, sexual orientation, marital status, familial status, disability, veteran status, or any other legally protected group status. Further, UPMC will continue to support and promote equal employment opportunity, human dignity, and racial, ethnic, and cultural diversity. This policy applies to admissions, employment, and access to and treatment in UPMC programs and activities. This commitment is made by UPMC in accordance with federal, state, and/or local laws and regulations.

Medical information made available on UPMC.com is not intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. You should not rely entirely on this information for your health care needs. Ask your own doctor or health care provider any specific medical questions that you have. Further, UPMC.com is not a tool to be used in the case of an emergency. If an emergency arises, you should seek appropriate emergency medical services.

For UPMC Mercy Patients: As a Catholic hospital, UPMC Mercy abides by the Ethical and Religious Directives for Catholic Health Care Services, as determined by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. As such, UPMC Mercy neither endorses nor provides medical practices and/or procedures that contradict the moral teachings of the Roman Catholic Church.

© UPMC
Pittsburgh, PA, USA UPMC.com