Borderline personality disorder
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a mental health condition in which a person has long-term patterns of unstable or turbulent emotions. These inner experiences often result in impulsive actions and chaotic relationships with other people.
Personality disorder - borderline
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Cause of borderline personality disorder is unknown. Genetic, family, and social factors are thought to play roles.
Risk factors for BPD include:
Abandonment in childhood or adolescence
Disrupted family life
Poor communication in the family
Sexual, physical, or emotional abuse
This personality disorder tends to occur more often in women and among hospitalized psychiatric patients.
Persons with BPD are often uncertain about their identity. As a result, their interests and values can change rapidly. They also tend to view things in terms of extremes, such as either all good or all bad. Their views of other people can change quickly. A person who is looked up to one day may be looked down on the next day. These suddenly shifting feelings often lead to intense and unstable relationships.
Other symptoms of BPD include:
Intense fear of being abandoned
Cannot tolerate being alone
Frequent feelings of emptiness and boredom
Frequent displays of inappropriate anger
Impulsiveness, such as with substance abuse or sexual relationships
Repeated crises and acts of self-injury, such as wrist cutting or overdosing
Signs and tests
BPD is diagnosed based on a psychological evaluation that assesses the history and severity of the symptoms.
Individual talk therapy may successfully treat BPD. In addition, group therapy can sometimes be helpful.
Medications have less of a role in the treatment of BPD. But in some cases, they can improve mood swings and treat depression or other disorders that may occur with this condition.
Outlook of treatment depends on how severe the condition is and whether the person is willing to accept help. With long-term talk therapy, the person often gradually improves.
Calling your health care provider
See your health care provider if you or someone you know has symptoms of borderline personality disorder. It is especially important to seek help right away if you or someone you know is having thoughts of suicide.
Blais MA, Smallwood P, Groves JE, Rivas-Vazquez RA. Personality and personality disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum JF, Fava M, Biederman J, Rauch SL, eds. Massachusetts General Hospital Comprehensive Clinical Psychiatry. 1st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2008:chap 39.
David B. Merrill, MD, Assistant Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, David R. Eltz, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.