Navigate Up

Neurology Center - A-Z Index

#
J
Q
X
Y
Z

Print This Page

Necrotizing enterocolitis

Necrotizing enterocolitis is the death of tissue in the intestine. It occurs most often in premature or sick babies.

Causes

Necrotizing enterocolitis occurs when the lining of the intestinal wall dies and the tissue falls off. The exact cause of this disorder is unknown. It is thought, however, that a drop in blood flow to the bowel keeps the bowel from producing mucus. The mucus protects the gastrointestinal tract. Bacteria in the intestine may also be a cause.

Most of the time, this problem develops in an infant that is ill or premature. It is likely to occur while the infant is still in the hospital.

Babies at higher risk of the condition include:

  • Premature infants
  • Infants who are fed concentrated formulas
  • Infants in a nursery where an outbreak has occurred
  • Infants who have received blood exchange transfusions

Symptoms

Symptoms may come on slowly or suddenly, and may include:

Exams and Tests

Treatment

Treatment for a baby that may have necrotizing entercolis include:

  • Halting regular feedings
  • Relieving gas in the bowel by inserting a tube in the stomach
  • Giving IV fluids and antibiotic medicines
  • Monitoring the condition with abdominal x-rays, blood tests, and measurement of blood gases

The infant will need surgery if there is a hole in the intestines or inflammation of the abdominal wall (peritonitis).

In this surgery, the doctor will:

The bowel is reconnected after several weeks or months when the infection has healed

Outlook (Prognosis)

Necrotizing enterocolitis is a serious disease. About 1 in 4 infants die from it. Early, aggressive treatment helps improve the outcome.

Possible Complications

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Get emergency medical care if any symptoms of necrotizing enterocolitis develop. Infants that have been hospitalized for illness or prematurity are at higher risk and should be watched for this problem.

References

Maheshwari A, Waldemar AC. Digestive system disorders. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 96.

Updated: 5/21/2013

Todd Eisner, MD, Private practice specializing in Gastroenterology, Boca Raton, FL. Clinical Instructor, Florida Atlantic University School of Medicine. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.


©  UPMC | Affiliated with the University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences
Supplemental content provided by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions. All rights reserved.

For help in finding a doctor or health service that suits your needs, call the UPMC Referral Service at 412-647-UPMC (8762) or 1-800-533-UPMC (8762). Select option 1.

UPMC is an equal opportunity employer. UPMC policy prohibits discrimination or harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, ancestry, national origin, age, sex, genetics, sexual orientation, marital status, familial status, disability, veteran status, or any other legally protected group status. Further, UPMC will continue to support and promote equal employment opportunity, human dignity, and racial, ethnic, and cultural diversity. This policy applies to admissions, employment, and access to and treatment in UPMC programs and activities. This commitment is made by UPMC in accordance with federal, state, and/or local laws and regulations.

Medical information made available on UPMC.com is not intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. You should not rely entirely on this information for your health care needs. Ask your own doctor or health care provider any specific medical questions that you have. Further, UPMC.com is not a tool to be used in the case of an emergency. If an emergency arises, you should seek appropriate emergency medical services.

For UPMC Mercy Patients: As a Catholic hospital, UPMC Mercy abides by the Ethical and Religious Directives for Catholic Health Care Services, as determined by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. As such, UPMC Mercy neither endorses nor provides medical practices and/or procedures that contradict the moral teachings of the Roman Catholic Church.

© UPMC
Pittsburgh, PA, USA UPMC.com