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Muscle biopsy

A muscle biopsy is the removal of a small piece of muscle tissue for examination.

Alternative Names

Biopsy - muscle

How the Test is Performed

This procedure is usually done while you are awake. The health care provider will apply a numbing medicine (local anesthesia) to the biopsy area.

There are two types of muscle biopsy:

A needle biopsy involves inserting a needle into the muscle. When the needle is removed, a small piece of tissue remains in the needle. More than one needle stick may be needed to get a large enough sample.

An open biopsy involves making a small cut in the skin and into the muscle. The muscle tissue is then removed.

After either type of biopsy, the tissue is sent to a laboratory for examination.

How to Prepare for the Test

No special preparation is usually needed. If you will have anesthesia, follow instructions on not eating or drinking anything before the test.

How the Test will Feel

During the biopsy, there is usually little or no discomfort. You may feel some pressure or tugging.

The anesthetic may burn or sting when injected (before the area becomes numb). After the anesthetic wears off, the area may be sore for about a week.

Why the Test is Performed

A muscle biopsy may be done to identify or detect:

A muscle biopsy may also be done to tell the difference between nerve and muscle disorders.

A muscle that has recently been injured, such as by an EMG needle, or is affected by a pre-existing condition, such as nerve compression, is not a good choice for a biopsy.

Normal Results

A normal result means the muscle is normal.

What Abnormal Results Mean

A muscle biopsy can help diagnose the following conditions:

Additional conditions under which the test may be performed include:

Risks

The risks are small, but may include:

  • Bleeding
  • Damage to the muscle tissue or other tissues in the area (very rare)
  • Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken)

References

Shepich JR. Muscle biopsy. In: Pfenninger JL, Fowler GC, eds. Pfenninger & Fowler's Procedures for Primary Care. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2010:chap 228.

Updated: 9/8/2014

C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.


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