Navigate Up

Pediatric Center - A-Z Index

#
Q
Z

Print This Page

Lithotripsy

Lithotripsy is a procedure that uses shock waves to break up stones in the kidney, bladder, or ureter (tube that carries urine from your kidneys to your bladder). After the procedure, the tiny pieces of stones pass out of your body in your urine.

Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the most common type of lithotripsy. "Extracorporeal" means outside the body.

To get ready for the procedure, you will put on a hospital gown and lie on an exam table on top of a soft, water-filled cushion.

You will be given medicine for pain or to help you relax before the procedure starts. You will also be given antibiotics

When you have the procedure, you may be given general anesthesia for the procedure. You will be asleep and pain-free.

High-energy shock waves, also called sound waves, will pass through your body until they hit the kidney stones. If you are awake, You may feel a tapping feeling when this starts. The waves break the stones into tiny pieces.

The lithotripsy procedure should take about 45 minutes to 1 hour.

A tube may be placed through your bladder or back into your kidney. This tube will drain urine from your kidney until all the small pieces of stone pass out of your body. This may be done before or after your lithotripsy treatment.

Alternative Names

Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy; Shock wave lithotripsy; Laser lithotripsy; Percutaneous lithotripsy; Endoscopic lithotripsy; ESWL; Renal calculi-lithotripsy

Why the Procedure Is Performed

Lithotripsy is used to remove kidney stones that are causing:

  • Bleeding
  • Damage to your kidney
  • Pain
  • Urinary tract infections

Not all kidney stones can be removed using lithotripsy. The stone may also be removed with:

  • A tube (endoscope) inserted into the kidney through a small surgical cut.
  • A small lighted tube inserted through the bladder into ureters. Ureters are the tubes that connect the kidneys to the bladder.
  • Open surgery (rarely needed).

Risks

Lithotripsy is safe most of the time. Talk to your doctor about possible complications such as:

  • Bleeding around your kidney, which may need a blood transfusion
  • Kidney infection
  • Pieces of the stone block urine flow from your kidney (this may cause severe pain or damage to your kidney)
  • Pieces of stone are left in your body (you may need more treatments)
  • Ulcers in your stomach or small intestine
  • Problems with kidney function after the procedure

Before the Procedure

Always tell your doctor or nurse:

  • If you are or could be pregnant
  • What drugs you are taking, even drugs, supplements, or herbs you bought without a prescription

During the days before the surgery:

  • You may be asked to stop taking aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), warfarin (Coumadin), and any other drugs that make it hard for your blood to clot. Ask your doctor when to stop taking them.
  • Ask your doctor which drugs you should still take on the day of the surgery.

On the day of your procedure:

  • You may not be allowed to drink or eat anything for several hours before the procedure.
  • Take the drugs your doctor told you to take with a small sip of water.
  • Your doctor or nurse will tell you when to arrive at the hospital.

After the Procedure

After the procedure, you will stay in the recovery room for up to about 2 hours. Most people are able to go home the day of their procedure . You will be given a urine strainer to catch the bits of stone passed in your urine.

Outlook (Prognosis)

How well you do depends on the number of stones you have, their size, and where in your urinary system they are. Most of the time, lithotripsy removes all the stones.

References

Curhan GC. Nephrolithiasis. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 128.

Matlaga BR, Lingeman JE. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 48.

Updated: 10/2/2013

Scott Miller, MD, Urologist in private practice in Atlanta, Georgia. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.


©  UPMC | Affiliated with the University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences
Supplemental content provided by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions. All rights reserved.

For help in finding a doctor or health service that suits your needs, call the UPMC Referral Service at 412-647-UPMC (8762) or 1-800-533-UPMC (8762). Select option 1.

UPMC is an equal opportunity employer. UPMC policy prohibits discrimination or harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, ancestry, national origin, age, sex, genetics, sexual orientation, marital status, familial status, disability, veteran status, or any other legally protected group status. Further, UPMC will continue to support and promote equal employment opportunity, human dignity, and racial, ethnic, and cultural diversity. This policy applies to admissions, employment, and access to and treatment in UPMC programs and activities. This commitment is made by UPMC in accordance with federal, state, and/or local laws and regulations.

Medical information made available on UPMC.com is not intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. You should not rely entirely on this information for your health care needs. Ask your own doctor or health care provider any specific medical questions that you have. Further, UPMC.com is not a tool to be used in the case of an emergency. If an emergency arises, you should seek appropriate emergency medical services.

For UPMC Mercy Patients: As a Catholic hospital, UPMC Mercy abides by the Ethical and Religious Directives for Catholic Health Care Services, as determined by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. As such, UPMC Mercy neither endorses nor provides medical practices and/or procedures that contradict the moral teachings of the Roman Catholic Church.

© UPMC
Pittsburgh, PA, USA UPMC.com