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Baseball Strength and Conditioning, and Injury Prevention

Playing multiple baseball games per week — along with the repetitive motion of overhead throwing — causes stress to the musculoskeletal system and exposes players to overuse injuries.

More than 30 million children and teenagers participate in organized sports today. About 288,000 of those are injured each year playing baseball.

Today, young athletes face pressure to focus on one sport — often playing year round and participating on multiple teams.

Without taking time off or changing sports during the year, baseball players commonly experience arm soreness and are likely to develop overuse injuries. If not properly managed, these overuse injuries can lead to more serious problems.

Baseball Injuries

Baseball players most often injure their shoulders or elbows. Shoulder-related injuries range from tendonitis of the muscles that keep the joint (the rotator cuff) stable to cartilage tears within the joint itself. Elbow problems include tendonitis of the muscles on top of or below the forearm and strains of the ligaments on the inside of the elbow.

Overuse baseball injuries

Overuse injuries can include tendonitis, inflammation of muscles, fractures, sprains, strains, cartilage tears, and more. These baseball injuries can prevent players from performing their best and make playing impossible in some cases. Baseball and softball players should condition with exercises to prevent injury and maximize performance.

Baseball conditioning exercises target several causes of baseball and softball-related injuries, including decreased rotator cuff or scapular strength, poor flexibility/ROM, and insufficient warm-up.

Causes of baseball injuries

  • Overtraining
  • Not enough rest periods
  • Poor throwing mechanics
  • Poor specific pitch technique
  • Poor flexibility and range of motion
  • Decreased rotator cuff or scapular (shoulder) strength
  • Decreased wrist muscle strength and flexibility
  • Decreased hamstring flexibility and strength
  • Poor hip flexibility
  • Poor core strength and stability
  • Decreased hip muscle strength

When to seek medical treatment

Any athlete who has pain or soreness for more than 48 hours should seek medical attention. In as little as 48 hours, weakness and imbalances can occur, leading to increased risk factors when the athlete returns to play.

Baseball Injury Prevention

To prevent injuries, baseball players should:

It's important for athletes to talk with parents and coaches instead of playing through any pain. Pain may be due to an underlying condition, and continuing to play could result in an injury.

If pain persists, or if a young athlete is playing year round without much rest, a consultation with a sports medicine specialist is recommended.

Services We Offer

The specialized team of experts from UPMC Sports Medicine can evaluate and, if necessary, treat an injury to prevent more serious problems.

Overuse injuries in baseball usually respond to rest and a temporary halt to playing.

Reduce pain and swelling by:

  • Icing the area
  • Doing gentle stretches
  • Using ibuprofen (e.g., Advil®, Motrin®, etc.)

After a period of rest, an athlete often needs physical therapy or rehabilitation to regain strength and flexibility in the affected area.

UPMC Sports Medicine can design a baseball-specific throwing, strengthening, and range-of-motion program to help the athlete return from injury, improve form, and work to avoid injuries in the future.

If surgery is needed, an athlete usually completes a sport-specific rehabilitation program afterward and can return to playing baseball safely with medical clearance. 

Contact UPMC Sports Medicine

To schedule an appointment or ask a question, call 1-855-937-7678 or contact us online.