What Is Necrotizing Fasciitis?
Any type of bacterial infection that affects the soft tissue (or fascia) is commonly known as necrotizing fasciitis. This occurs when an open wound comes in direct contact with harmful bacteria, often found in still or dirty water. Open wounds can be caused by simple cuts, contusions, abrasions, and even insect bites.
The harmful bacteria typically will cause the skin cells and soft tissue to die (necrotize), and in serious cases may cause further complications that can lead to serious illness, amputation, and even death. Athletes who spend their time outdoors and around lakes, ponds, and rivers must take extra precautions to ensure that the skin surface is free from any pathways for bacteria to take hold.
Signs and Symptoms of Necrotizing Fasciitis
Specific necrotizing fasciitis symptoms may vary depending on the severity of the infection, but may include:
- Small, red, painful lump or bump on skin
- Skin that breaks open and oozes fluid
- Fever, sweating, chills, or nausea
- Dizziness and weakness
- Swollen tissue that is hot to the touch and very painful
- Rapid heart rate
- Sunburn-like rash
- Large, dark boil-like blisters
In serious cases, the body ultimately will go into toxic shock, and internal organs will shut down. This is why early detection of these signs and symptoms is vital.
Preventing Necrotizing Fasciitis
Due to the spontaneous nature of this kind of infection, there is no definitive prevention method. Rather, there are many steps an athlete can take to help minimize the risk of necrotizing fasciitis. The most important step is to keep skin clean and intact. Even with small cuts, be sure to clean thoroughly, apply an antibiotic ointment, and keep covered. Athletes with open cuts or wounds should try to avoid direct contact with individuals who have a strep infection.
Necrotizing Fasciitis Treatment
The key to effective treatment is timeliness and early detection. What many athletes may brush off as a simple rash or irritation may prove to be much more serious. In the majority of cases, this disease is not serious and will resolve with cleaning, bandaging, and proper wound care. In more serious cases, treatment steps may include:
- Diagnostic testing, such as x-rays, CT scans, or MRI
- Intravenous antibiotics
- Surgery to remove dead tissue
- Special antibody medicines to help fight infection
- 100 percent oxygen at high pressure
- Skin grafts after infection subsides
- Amputation to decrease spread
If left untreated and ignored, necrotizing fasciitis can lead to several serious complications, and even death. However, with the right precautions and considerations, athletes can help decrease the risk of contracting skins and flesh infections, and stay safe in the great outdoors.
If you suspect any type of skin-related bacterial infection, please contact your family physician or a dermatologist for proper diagnosis and treatment. Or call 911 if your case is an emergency.