Angiofibroma is a benign (noncancerous) nasal cavity tumor that almost exclusively affects adolescent boys. It also may be referred to as juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA).
The age range for this disease is 7 to 19 years old, with most people being diagnosed between 10 and 19 years old.
Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is the most common benign tumor of the nasopharynx, but has a relatively low incidence. It accounts for only 0.5 percent of all head and neck tumors.
Though benign, it often acts in a malignant manner by eroding into the surrounding sinuses, orbit, or cranial vault.
At UPMC, the preferred surgical treatment for angiofibroma is the Endoscopic Endonasal Approach (EEA). This innovative, minimally invasive technique uses the nose and nasal cavities as natural corridors to access hard-to-reach or previously inoperable tumors.
Benefits of EEA include:
EEA has proven safe and effective in removing angiofibromas from children. More than 100 children have been treated by UPMC skull base surgeons using EEA — more than at any other neurosurgery center in the world.
To diagnose angiofibroma, the doctor will perform a physical exam and ask about any symptoms.
The most common symptoms of angiofibroma include:
Some people also may develop facial deformities or abnormalities, including:
On physical exam, a pale, smooth mass may be visible inside the nasopharynx.
Because the tumor is composed of blood vessels without a muscular coat, a biopsy could lead to extensive bleeding and doctors generally do not perform one.
An MRI or CT scan of the head and facial bones confirms the clinical diagnosis of angiofibroma and shows the extension of the tumor.
The most common treatment for angiofibroma is surgery.
Angiofibromas may be approached directly using the Endoscopic Endonasal Approach (EEA). This state-of-the-art, minimally invasive approach allows surgeons to access the tumor through the natural corridor of the nose, without making an open incision. Surgeons then remove the angiofibroma through the nose and nasal cavities.
EEA offers the benefits of no incisions to heal, no disfigurement, and a faster recovery time.
If you need complementary treatments, such as radiation, those therapies can begin soon after EEA surgery.
Prior to surgery, an angiogram may be performed. This imaging test uses x-rays to view blood vessels that have been injected with a contrasting dye, to allow for embolization of the tumor.
Embolization involves cutting off the blood supply to the tumor. It significantly reduces blood loss during surgery and tumor removal.
Radiation therapy may be used for people with angiofibroma tumors that have extended into the cranial cavity, can't be reached safely by surgery, or have returned after previous treatment.
Hormonal flutamide, which blocks testosterone receptors, has been shown to reduce tumor size effectively.
The use of this medication is restricted to those enrolled in clinical trials.
UPMC surgeons performed an extraordinary, nine-hour surgery that allowed this average 10-year-old to return to the everyday fun of being a kid.